The Use of Mindfulness Meditation to Increase the Efficacy of Mirror Visual Feedback for Reducing Phantom Limb Pain in Amputees

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The Use of Mindfulness Meditation to Increase the Efficacy of Mirror Visual Feedback for Reducing Phantom Limb Pain in Amputees, Is A Well-Researched Topic, It Is To Be Used As A Guide Or Framework For Your Research.

Introduction

 

Integrated healthcare and behavioral health require consideration of the simultaneous effect of multiple disorders. Specifically, there is much evidence of the relationship that psychological conditions have on the physical disorder of chronic pain (Markozannes et al., 2017). Psychological interventions have a significant role in the management of chronic pain (Garg et al., 2012). For example, interdisciplinary chronic pain programs will sometimes utilize cognitive-behavioral approaches with a patient, helping chronic pain patients increase acceptance of their pain, rather than focus only on relieving the pain itself (Probst et al., 2019). Typically, treatment consists of individual and group therapy, with the CBT component focuing primarily on psychoeducation, the bio-psycho-social pain model, and relaxation training, which often includes MM or other MBI’s (Probst et al., 2019). Despite chronic pain being a sensation that is experienced in the body, patient beliefs and expectations regarding pain and its treatment are major determinants of treatment outcomes (Osterweis, Kleinman, & Mechanic, 1987). Thus, it is reasonable to postulate that interventions that modify patient beliefs would impact the efficacy of psychological interventions that treat Phantom Limb Pain (PLP). This study will examine whether mirror visual feedback (MVF) is more effective for individuals with PLP who engage in mindfulness meditation (MM) compared to those who do not engage in MM. It was hypothesized that there would be a greater reduction in pain among individuals engaged in MVF and MM compared to those who engaged in MVF alone.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgements ……………………………………………………………………………………………… iii
Dedication …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… v
Specific Aims ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. viii
Glossary ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… x
List of Tables ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… xi
List of Figures ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. xii
CHAPTER I. Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
CHAPTER II. Review of the Literature ………………………………………………………………….. 2
Phantom Limb Pain……………………………………………………………………………………. 2
Existing Treatment for Phantom Limb Pain ………………………………………………….. 3
Mindfulness Meditation as Evidence-Based Practice ……………………………………… 4
Mirror Visual Feedback/Mirror Box Therapy (MVF) …………………………………….. 5
Telepsychology …………………………………………………………………………………………. 7
CHAPTER III. Methods ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
IRB Approval ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 9
Participant Recruitment ……………………………………………………………………………… 9
Sample Size …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10
Inclusion Criteria …………………………………………………………………………………….. 10
Exclusion Criteria ……………………………………………………………………………………. 11
Procedures ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11
Statistical Analysis …………………………………………………………………………………… 12
Measures ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13

Visual analog scale. ………………………………………………………………………. 13
Mindfulness meditation in the experimental condition. ……………………… 14
MVF protocol used in control group. ………………………………………………. 15
Evaluation ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 16
CHAPTER IV. Results ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 17
Demographics …………………………………………………………………………………………. 17
Hypothesis………………………………………………………………………………………………. 21
CHAPTER V. Discussion ……………………………………………………………………………………. 25
Implications…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 26
Limitations ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 27
Suggestions for Future Research ……………………………………………………………….. 30
References …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 34
Appendix A. Consent Form for Study Participants …………………………………………………. 48
Appendix B. Participant Questionnaire Screen ………………………………………………………. 51
Appendix C. Visual Analogue Sclae for Pain …………………………………………………………. 53
Appendix D. Intervention Timeline ………………………………………………………………………. 55
Appendix E. Repeated Measures ANOVA …………………………………………………………….. 57
Appendix F. Mindfullness Meditation Script …………………………………………………………. 60
Appendix G. Permission Email…………………………………………………………………………….. 63
Appendix H. Mirror Visual Feedback Protocol for Upper Extremity ………………………… 65
Appendix I. Mirror Visual Feedback Protocol for Lower Extremity …………………………. 67

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Additional information

Author

Nicolas Sebastian Mills

No of Chapters

5

No of Pages

82

Reference

YES

Format

PDF

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