The Effects of Historical Alcohol Use on Neuropsychological Functioning in Older Adults Following a Traumatic Brain Injury is a well-researched Social and Behavioral Sciences thesis/Dissertation topic, it is to be used as a guide or framework for your Academic Research.
The present study aimed to determine the effects of alcohol abuse and dependence on long term functioning of older adults who have experienced a moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. The research question is answered in the current study was if a history of alcohol abuse or dependence would worsen neuropsychological functioning in older adults who experienced at least one moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.
Participants of the study were selected from the more extensive database provided by the Brain Aging in Vietnam War Veterans (DOD-ADNI) database. All participants were Vietnam War veterans between the ages of 61 and 85. The participants were grouped according to the presence of a traumatic brain injury and a history of alcohol use or dependence. All participants had at least five years of abstinence from alcohol.
Neuropsychological tests measured differences between groups in the domains of verbal fluency, confrontation naming, verbal memory, executive functioning, and mood. Results of the current study showed there was no difference in neuropsychological functioning between individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury and individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury and alcohol abuse or dependence.
The results of the current study indicate that in a population of older adults with a history of traumatic brain injury, neuropsychological functioning deficits are no greater if the individual also has a history of alcohol use.
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION
It is estimated that every year approximately 1.7 million individuals in the United States experience a traumatic brain injury (TBI; Faul, Xu, Waldo, & Coronado, 2010). Between the years 2007 and 2013, there were around 2.8 million emergency department visits as a result of TBI in the United States (Taylor, Bell, Breiding, & Xu, 2017).
Approximately 6% of Americans who sustain a TBI experience permanent disability as a result (Langlois, Rutland-Brown, & Thomas, 2004). The direct and indirect societal cost of TBI is likely to be over $60 billion per year (Finkelstein, Corso, & Miller, 2006; Zitney et al., 2008).
The presence of TBI history can have negative consequences throughout the life of an injured individual. For instance, executive dysfunction following TBI may limit the ability to accomplish instrumental activities of daily living (Colantonio et al., 2004; Erez, Rothschild, Katz, Tuchner, & Hartman-Maeir, 2009) and lead to employment difficulties (Ownsworth & McKenna, 2004; Erez, Rothschild, Katz, Tuchner, & Hartman-Maeir, 2009).
Traumatic brain injury is often referred to as the signature wound of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF; Jones, Fear, and Wessely, 2007; Snell & Halter, 2010; Wieland, Hursey, & Delgado, 2010).
The Department of Defense (2017) estimates that approximately 361,000 service members experienced at least one TBI during the years of 2000 through 2016. The astounding number of traumatic brain injuries has increased from 12% of all Vietnam War causalities to 22% of all OIF/OEF casualties being due to head trauma (U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, 2018).