The Avenues of Social and Economic Empowerment for Women in Ghana’s Poor Urban Settlements


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The Avenues of Social and Economic Empowerment for Women in Ghana’s Poor Urban Settlements, Is A Well-Researched Topic, It Is To Be Used As A Guide Or Framework For Your Research.


1.1 Background
Slum emergence over the years has been as a result of urbanization, which is fast growing in both developed and developing countries. More than 90% of future population growth will be accounted for by the large cities in the developing countries creating more slums. In the developing world, Africa has experienced the highest urban growth during the last two decades at 3.5% per year and this rate of growth is expected to hold till 2050. Projections also indicate that between 2010 and 2025, some African cities will account for up to 85% of the population. This rapid influx has changed Africa’s demographic landscape. Yet, urbanization
in Africa has resulted in a proliferation of slums, urban poverty, and rising inequality, even though it has also somehow been a positive influence. Inequality in African cities remains the second highest in the world with an average Gini coefficient of about 0.58, well above the average of 0.4. Rural-urban migration and natural population growth rates in cities are the major causes of the increasing rate of urban growth and slum creation in Africa. It is however the belief that Africa, with its relatively rapid rate of urbanization, will in future also be part of what Toynbee has called the ‘world city’ or ‘ecumenopolis’ according to Doxiadis with the
majority of the world’s population then living in a network of urban centers (Songsore, 2000a).

Table of Contents

Chapter One 8
Introduction 8
1.1 Background 8
Chapter Two 14
Literature Review 14
2.1 Introduction 14
2.2 Gendered Slums 15
2.3 Social Networks 18
2.4 Economic Opportunities 20
2.5 Political Opportunities 21
2.6 Women journey into Governance in the Global South 23
Chapter 3 26
Research Methodology 26
3.1 Introduction 26
3.2 Research Design 26
3.3 Conceptual Framework 26
3.4 Data Collection Tools and Techniques 27
3.5 Data Source 27
3.5.1 Primary Data 27
3.5.2 Secondary Data 28
3.6 Interviews and Focus Group Discussions 28
3.6.1 Interview Guides 29
3.7 Community Observation 29
3.8 Sample Size and Sample Selection Processes 29
3.8.1 Study Site 30
3.8.2 Research Population 30
3.9 Data Analysis 31
Chapter 4 32
Findings and Data Analysis 32
4.1 Introduction 32
4.2 Description and History of Ashaiman 32
4.2.1 Description and History of Old Fadama 34
4.3 Reasons for participation 37
4.4 Male Patriarchal system 39

4.4 Challenges of Women in Leadership Roles 41
4.4.2 Political Funding 41
4.4.3 Labeling 44
4.4.4 Political discrimination 47
4.4.5 Other constraints of women in slum areas 48
4.5 Education/Gendered awareness 48
4.5.1 Affirmative Action by men 51
4.5.2 The contribution of non-governmental agencies 52
4.5.3 Importance of Networks 55
4.6 Achievements of Women Leaders 56
4.7 Political and Economic Opportunities 57
4.8 Maintenance of Law and Order 58
Chapter 5 60
Empirical and theoretical contribution 60
5.1 Introduction 60
5.2 Summary of Findings 60
5.3 Theoretical Contribution 60
5.4 Policy implication 61
Bibliography 62
Appendix 1 66
Interview Guide 66

Additional information


Comfort Amoah

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