Suceptibility of Seven Varieties of Pepper and Tomato to Root- knot Nematodes(Meloidogyne spp)

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Suceptibility of Seven Varieties of Pepper and Tomato to Root- knot Nematodes(Meloidogyne spp) is a well-researched topic, it is to be used as a guide or framework for your Academic Research.

Abstract

Seven varieties of pepper and tomato were screened for resistance to root-knot nematodes.The study was conducted at the Nematology laboratory Unit and at the rooftop garden of the Crop Protection and
Environmental Biology Department, University of Ibadan, Ibadan Nigeria. Each potted plant was inoculated with a single egg mass of Meloidogyne spp. and harvested six weeks after inoculation. Using the combination of the values of the Reproductive Factor (RF) and Galling index (GI), the screened tomato and pepper varieties were rated resistant, susceptible, or tolerant to Meloidogyne spp. The pepper varieties rated resistant were Charleston Bell and Carolina Wonder. The pepper varieties rated susceptible to Meloidogyne spp. were Rodo, Tatase, Bawa, and Goliath. Combo variety was rated tolerant to Meloidogyne spp. The results for the seven varieties of tomato indicated that Ibadan Local and Tropmech varieties were susceptible while Big-beef, Jetsetter, Celebrity, Roma VFN, and Small-Fry varieties were tolerant to the root-knot nematodes The results indicate the potential availability of resistant rootstocks in the management of root-knot nematodes on peppers and tomatoes.

Introduction

Plant-parasitic nematodes are an extremely important limiting factor in vegetable production. Globally, the total amount of fresh vegetables produced for the market as a percentage of total production has actually
decreased slightly since 1990 (Sikora and Fernandez, 2005). Throughout the world, the production of crops, pepper inclusive, is being constrained by biotic factors such as insects, weeds, birds, fungi, bacteria, viruses, and nematodes. Published reports show that root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are serious and important
pathogens of pepper which reduce the yield ( Fery and Thies, 1997; Thies and Fery, 2002). Over sixty species of plant-parasitic nematodes attack tomato but the most destructive nematodes responsible for enormous losses of tomato are the root-knot nematode belonging to the genus Meloidogyne (Udo, 2004). The most widespread and devastating species on tomato in the tropics on tomato are Meloidogyne javanica. About 29 – 50% yield reduction of tomato in the tropics is attributed to root-knot
nematodes (Udo, 2004). In the tropics alone, estimated production losses of tomato due to Meloidogyne sp. reach as high as 50%. M. javanica is stated to cause an estimated 50% loss in economically important vegetables and fruit crops each year (Adesiyan et al 1990 and Sasser, 1980) Vegetable production in all tropical and subtropical areas is highly dependent on good nematode control. In most cases, nematode control is a pre-requisite to successful production with soil fumigation a standard practice (Sikora and Fernandez, 2005). Ecological concerns associated with the use of chemicals have necessitated the development of environmentally friendly alternatives such as the use of resistance. Grafting with resistant rootstock is gaining acceptance in the management of soil-borne pathogens.

Meloidogyne incognita is reported to be predominant in the southern part of Nigeria, however, some preliminary studies show that M. incognita – resistant cv present galling symptoms. Due to the fact that
Meloidogyne species exist in mixed populations, it is, therefore, important to know what species attack pepper and tomatoes and while selecting resistant rootstock. The majority of the farmers in Nigeria, due to their ignorance, generally do not consider plant-parasitic nematodes as serious and important pathogens reducing the output and quality of crops. This is against the volumes of researches on plant-parasitic nematode damage on crops, ranging from tubers to grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits. In order to reduce or minimize the lack of information on the root-knot nematode, this study was aimed at
investigations of the pathogenic effects of pepper and tomato, screening of some cultivars for resistance, and the use of the resistant rootstock therefrom, in the management of root-knot disease on pepper.
This study was therefore aimed at screening seven varieties each of tomato and pepper for resistance to root-knot nematodes.

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Additional information

Type

Project Topic and Material

Category

Agricultural Education

No of Chapters

5

Reference

Yes

Format

PDF

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