Soil Assessment of Selected Floodplain Soil in Nigeria to Support Agriculture Advancement

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Soil Assessment of Selected Floodplain Soil in Nigeria to Support Agriculture Advancement is a well-researched topic, it is to be used as a guide or framework for your Academic Research.

ABSTRACT

A series of soils of the Mayo-gwoi flood plain in Jalingo Nigeria were classified and characterized to develop a baseline for soil improvement and increase agricultural productivity. Seven pedons were dug in the area marked Soil units 1, 2 and 3 and were examined with regards to their morphology, physical and chemical properties. The soils were formed over basement complex rocks and alluvial deposits, having shallow to deep pedons, they had high sand fraction and clay content which increased irregularly with depth. The dominant hues were 10YR at the surface and 2.5Y at the subsurface indicating poor drainage. Soil texture varied from sandy clay loam to clay. The pH was slightly acidic to alkaline (6.6 – 7.7), organic carbon was low (mean: 0.2%). The N content was low to moderate with mean value of 0.02%. Available phosphorus content were generally low to moderate in all pedons studied having mean value of 8.8 mg/Kg. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) was generally moderate in all the pedons (mean: 8.31 cmol/kg). This result showed that the soils had low inherent fertility. The soils were classified as Typic Ustifluvents/Hydragric Fluvisols, Topic Ustifluvents/Hydragric Fluvisols, Plinthic Paleustalfs/Nitic Arenosols, Typic Ustipsamments/Hydragic Arenosols, Typic Ustipsamments/ Hydragic Arenosols, Aquertic
Haplustalfs/Haplic Lixisols, Aquic Haplustalfs/Haplic Vertisols according to the USDA Soil Taxonomy and WRB for pedons P1 to P2 respectively. These poorly-drained and low fertility soils require (i) a soil fertilization program and (ii) the development of agronomic guidelines for creating
farm profitability.

INTRODUCTION

Floodplain soils constitute the back bone of
arable crop production in the semi-arid and
arid savannah agro-ecological zones where
precipitation (rainfall) is limited for agricultural
productivity. Flood plains are predominantly flat
floored inland valleys bordering or adjacent to the
banks of major rivers and streams. They form
part of a larger group called the wetland soils [1].
The flood plains also known as “Fadamas” in
northern Nigeria have become very prominent
because of their use for intensive agricultural
production [1]. Fadama soils usually have low
gradient and are liable to seasonal flooding at the
peak of rainy season [2]. The fadama soils
vary widely in morphological and chemical
characteristics both within and between valleys
owing to differences in morphogenesis, location,
hydrological regimes, lithologic origins and
climatic condition, therefore they could be rich or
very poor in fertility [3]. The terrain features of
most West African flood plains comprise levees,
back swamps, sandbar, and ox-bow lakes [4].

Fadama is a Hausa word meaning low-lying
swamp area consisting of fluvial deposits and
containing extensive exploitable aquifers [5]. The
word also refers to a seasonally flooded area
used for dry season farming. It has been
reported by [5] that fadama-like lands are
described in Igbo language variously as “ani uro,
ude or uda” other language groups have their
own words that describe lands under this water-
affected area condition. In the discipline of soil
science, the word “hydromorphism” describes the
situation in which the soil is poorly drained which
may be as a result of many factors, for example,
the presence of an impermeable underlying
layer or shale parent material, valley bottom on
the landscape. Hydromorphic soils may be
developed in depressions, valley swamps and
floodplains. Organic hydromorphic soils are
described as “peat” or “muck” depending on the
degree of decomposition of the organic deposits.
The Mayo-Gwoi floodplain has been on
continuous cultivation by peasant farmers
because of the importance attached to vegetable
and arable crop production. Farmers cultivate the
plain on- and off-season due to the residual
moisture of the alluvial deposits. The fertility
status of the soils of the study area has not been
evaluated or classified.
Agricultural development, a subset of economic
development, implies a sustained increase in the
level of production and productivity over a
reasonable length of time and the subsequent
improved wellbeing of farmers as reflected in
their higher per capita income and standard of
living. Rural development relates not only to a
sustained increase in the level of production and
productivity of all rural dwellers, including
farmers, and a sustained improvement in their
wellbeing, manifested by increasing per capita
income and standard of living, but also leads to a
sustained physical, social and economic
improvement of rural communities [5].

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Additional information

Type

Project Topic and Material

Category

Agronomy

No of Chapters

5

Reference

Yes

Format

PDF

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