Response and Recovery of Horn and Petit Bois Islands, Mississippi, USA to Tropical Cyclone Impacts: 2004 – 2016

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Response and Recovery of Horn and Petit Bois Islands, Mississippi, USA to Tropical Cyclone Impacts: 2004 – 2016, Is A Well-Researched Topic, It Is To Be Used As A Guide Or Framework For Your Research.

ABSTRACT

Horn and Petit Bois islands are two of five Mississippi (MS) barrier islands that provide physical protection from tropical cyclones threatening the MS Gulf Coast, in addition to critical habitat for the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM). In September 2004, Hurricane Ivan removed a large volume of sediment from the eastern ends of Horn and Petit Bois islands with its 1-2 m storm surge and ~194 kph wind speeds. Then, in August
2005 Hurricane Katrina severely impacted the two islands again with its 3.5-5.5 m storm surge on Horn and Petit Bois islands, and up to 204 kph wind speeds at landfall. Using topographic light detection and ranging (LIDAR) datasets from 2004 to 2016, spatial and temporal changes of the islands’ area, sediment volumes, and shorelines were measured to
ascertain their geomorphic responses and recovery rates following the impacts of these devastating tropical cyclones. During the 2004–05 hurricane seasons, Horn Island lost 13.3% of its pre-hurricane Ivan land area, lost 35.9% sediment volume, and had a total average shoreline change rate of –10 m/yr. Petit Bois Island lost 13.3% of its pre-Ivan land
area, lost 27% sediment volume, and had a shoreline change rate of –33 m/yr. Between 2005 (post-Katrina) and 2016, Horn Island recouped 6.6% of its pre-Ivan land area and~4.3% sediment volume, while Petit Bois Island recovered 4% of its pre-Ivan land area and~22.9% sediment volume. The overall averaged shoreline change rates between 2004 and
2016 were –2 m/yr for Horn Island and –3 m/yr for Petit Bois Island. These changes reflect that Horn Island is no longer stable, as its sediment supply cannot keep pace with the current rate of sediment loss, and that because Petit Bois Island’s narrow central shoreline
is retreating at a rate of ~9 m/yr, the island is at risk of breaching during the next storm.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. iii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ………………………………………………………………………………….. iv
DEDICATION…………………………………………………………………………………………………… vi
LIST OF TABLES ……………………………………………………………………………………………… x
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ……………………………………………………………………………… xi
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS …………………………………………………………………………… xiii
CHAPTER I – INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………. 1
1.1 Regional Setting ………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
1.2 Study Sites…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6
1.3 Cyclone History …………………………………………………………………………………………. 7
1.4 Research Objectives …………………………………………………………………………………. 10
CHAPTER II – METHODS ………………………………………………………………………………. 12
2.1 LIDAR Acquisition and Digital Elevation Model Generation …………………….. 12
2.2 LIDAR Uncertainty …………………………………………………………………………………. 16
2.3 Subaerial Area Analyses…………………………………………………………………………… 16
2.4 Volumetric Analyses ………………………………………………………………………………… 17
2.5 Transect Elevation Profiles ………………………………………………………………………. 18
2.6 Shoreline Analyses …………………………………………………………………………………… 18
2.7 Wave and Wind Data Analyses ………………………………………………………………… 19

CHAPTER III – RESULTS ……………………………………………………………………………….. 21
3.1 Wave and Wind Data……………………………………………………………………………….. 21
3.2 Horn Island ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 24
3.2.1 Elevation Transect Data …………………………………………………………………….. 25
3.2.1.1 Transect H1 ………………………………………………………………………………… 25
3.2.1.2 Transect H2 ………………………………………………………………………………… 26
3.2.1.3 Transect H3 ………………………………………………………………………………… 27
3.2.1.4 Transect H4 ………………………………………………………………………………… 28
3.2.2 Subaerial Area and Shoreline Changes ………………………………………………. 31
3.2.3 Volume Changes………………………………………………………………………………… 33
3.3 Petit Bois Island……………………………………………………………………………………….. 37
3.3.1 Elevation Transect Data …………………………………………………………………….. 38
3.3.1.1 Transect PB1 ………………………………………………………………………………. 38
3.3.1.2 Transect PB2 ………………………………………………………………………………. 39
3.3.1.3 Transect PB3 ………………………………………………………………………………. 40
3.3.1.4 Transect PB4 ………………………………………………………………………………. 41
3.3.2 Subaerial Area and Shoreline Changes ………………………………………………. 44
3.3.3 Volume Changes………………………………………………………………………………… 46
CHAPTER IV – DISCUSSION …………………………………………………………………………. 50
4.1 Morphological Impacts / Responses of the 2004-2005 Hurricane Seasons …… 50

4.2 Morphological Responses from 2005 to 2016 …………………………………………….. 54
4.3 Morphological Changes Across Entire Study Period: 2004 – 2016 ……………… 58
4.4 Summary …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 60
CHAPTER V – CONCLUSIONS ………………………………………………………………………. 64
APPENDIX A – WIND STATISTICS ……………………………………………………………….. 66
REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 68

Additional information

Author

Shara Gremillion

No of Chapters

5

No of Pages

94

Reference

YES

Format

PDF

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