RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND VENTILATORY FUNCTION IN HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) – INFECTED PATIENTS

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RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND VENTILATORY FUNCTION IN HUMAN
IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) – INFECTED PATIENTS, Is A Well-Researched Topic, It Is To Be Used As A Guide Or Framework For Your Research. (download in EPUB or PDF format).

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are known to present with increased frequency of respiratory symptoms and impaired ventilatory function. The study was done in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi.

OBJECTIVES: This study is aimed at determining the frequency and pattern of respiratory symptoms, as well as the pattern of ventilatory function in HIV-positive patients. It also sets out to determine any association between ventilatory function and respiratory symptoms as well as CD4 count level.

SUBJECTS: A total of 80 HIV positive patients were recruited, together with 80 control subjects

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Materials used were a weighing scale, a height meter, a thermometer, a spirometer and questionnaires, sample bottle for CD4 count. Each subject read an informed consent proforma with an explanation given were necessary before signing it. Each subject completed the questionnaire under the guidance of the researcher. The temperature, height, and weight of each subject were measured. Thereafter ventilatory function tests were conducted on each subject by means of the spirometer. A blood sample was taken for CD4 count estimation.

RESULTS: 55.66% of HIV-positive males and 47.7% of HIV-positive females had respiratory symptoms, the commonest being cough, nasal stuffiness, and breathlessness. Mean FEV1, FVC, and FEF25%-75% values were significantly lower in HIV positive males when compared to their HIV negative controls.

Mean PEFR and FEV1/FVC values were significantly lower in HIV positive
females compared to their HIV negative controls. CD4 count level showed a positive correlation with ventilatory function indices in both male and female HIV positive patients.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title – – – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – – – – ii
Certification – – – – – – – – – iii
Attestation – – – – – – – – – – iv
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – v
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – vi
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – – vii
List of tables – – – – – – – – – xii
List of figures – – – – – – – – – xv
Abbreviations – – – – – – – – – xvi
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – xvii

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION, AIM AND OBJECTIVES
1.1 INTRODUCTION – – – – – – – – 1
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES – – – – – – – 3

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS IN HIV INFECTED PATIENTS – 4
2.2 HIV AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM – – – – – 5

2.2.1 HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS WITHOUT ACCESS TO PROPHYLAXIS FOR
PULMONARY INFECTIONS AND ANTIRETROVIRAL TREATMENT – 6
2.2.2 HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS WITH ACCESS TO PROPHYLAXIS FOR
PULMONARY INFECTIONS BUT NOT TO ANTIRETROVIRAL
TREATMENT – – – – – – – – – 8
2.2.3 HIV INFECTED PATIENTS WITH ACCESS TO PROPHYLAXIS FOR
PULMONARY INFECTIONS AND TO HAART – – – – 8
2.3 SPECTRUM OF RESPIRATORY ILLNESSES IN HIV-INFECTED
PATIENTS – – – – – – – – – – 10
2.4 PATHOGENESIS OF LUNG INFECTION BY HIV – – – – 11
2.5 CD4 COUNT AND PULMONARY DISEASES – – – – – 13
2.6 COMMON RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN PATIENTS
WITH HIV – – – – – – – – – – 14
2.6.1 BACTERIAL PNEUMONIAS – – – – – – – 14
2.6.2 HIV-RELATED ACUTE BRONCHITIS – – – – – – 15
2.6.3 PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII PNEUMONIA (PJP) – – – – 16
2.6.4 HIV/TUBERCULOSIS CO-INFECTION – – – – – 16

2.7 LUNG FUNCTION TESTS – – – – – – 17
2.7.1 INDICATIONS FOR LUNG FUNCTION TEST – – – 19
2.7.2 CONTRAINDICATIONS TO LUNG FUNCTION TEST – – 20
2.7.3 FACTORS AFFECTING LUNG FUNCTIONS – – – – 20
2.7.4 VENTILATORY DYSFUCTION IN HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS – 22
2.8 JUSTIFICATION FOR THE STUDY – – – – – 26

CHAPTER 3
SUBJECTS MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 STUDY DESIGN – – – – – – – – 27
3.2 STUDY SITE – – – – – – – – 27
3.3 PROPOSED PROTOCOL – – – – – – – 28
3.4 SUBJECT RECRUITMENT – – – – – – 28
3.5 CONTROL POPULATION – – – – – – 28
3.6 INCLUSION CRITERIA – – – – – – – 28
3.7 EXCLUSION CRITERIA – – – – – – – 29
3.8 CALCULATION OF SAMPLE SIZE – – – – – 30

3.9 MATERIALS – – – – – – – – 30
3.10 METHODS – – – – – – – – – 31
3.11 DATA ANALYSIS – – – – – – – – 33

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS
4.1 STUDY POPULATION – – – – – – – – 35
4.2 AGE DISTRIBUTION – – – – – – – – 36
4.2.1 AGE DISTRIBUTION IN MALES – – – – – – 36
4.2.2 AGE DISTRIBUTION IN FEMALES – – – – – – 37
4.3: ANTHROPOMETRIC VARIABLES – – – – – – 38
4.4 RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS – – – – – – – 39
4.5 FREQUENCY OF SPECIFIC RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS – – – 40
4.6 VENTILATORY FUNCTION TESTS – – – – – – 42
4.7 FACTORS AFFECTING VENTILATORY4.7.1 PRESENCE OF RESPIRATORY
SYMPTOMS – – – – – – – – – – 43
4.7.1 PRESENCE OF RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS – – – – – 43
4.7.2 CD4 COUNT LEVEL – – – – – – – – 45
4.7.3 DURATION OF HIV AFTER DIAGNOSIS – – – – – 47
4.8 COMPARISON BETWEEN OBSERVED AND PREDICTED VALUES – 48
4.8.1 COMPARISON IN MALES – – – – – – – 48
4.8.2 COMPARISON IN FEMALES – – – – – – – 49

4.8.3 CLASSIFICATION OF VENTILATORY FUNCTION VALUES IN HIV
POSITIVE PATIENTS BASED ON NIGERIAN PREDICTED EQUATIONS
FOR MALES AND FEMALES – – – – – – – – 50

CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSION
5.1 STUDY SUMMARY – – – – – – – – 52
5.2 STUDY POPULATION – – – – – – – – 52
5.3 RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS IN HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS – – 53
5.4 VENTILATORY FUNCTIONS IN HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS – – 55
5.5 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VENTILATORY FUNCTION AND
RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS, CD4 COUNT AND DURATION AFTER
DIAGNOSIS IN HIV PATIENTS – – – – – – 57
5.6 COMPARISON BETWEEN OBSERVED VALUES FOR THE MEASURED
VENTILATORY INDICES IN THIS STUDY AND VALUES PREDICTED
FROM NIGERIAN REFERENCE EQUATIONS – – – – 60
5.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY – – – – – – – 61

CHAPTER SIX
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS – – – – – – 62
REFERENCES – – – – – – – – – – 64
APPENDIX I – – – – – – – – – – 78
APPENDIX II – – – – – – – – – – 80
APPENDIX III – – – – – – – – – – 85
APPENDIX IV – – – – – – – – – – 86

Additional information

Author

DR NWOSU NNAMDI IKECHUKWU

No of Chapters

6

No of Pages

111

Reference

YES

Format

PDF

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