Paper, Places, and Familias: Tracing the Social Mobility of Mexicans in New York

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Paper, Places, and Familias: Tracing the Social Mobility of Mexicans in New York, Is A Well-Researched Topic, It Is To Be Used As A Guide Or Framework For Your Research.

ABSTRACT

Why and how do some undocumented immigrants, Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals recipients, and their families in the United States do better than others in terms of family household income and educational planning? Immigrant “illegality” can limit specific possibilities and opportunities for most immigrants and their family members. But important variations have been identified in ethnographic fieldwork for this dissertation and through a dataset of contemporary immigrants interviewed in New York. The objective of this dissertation is to analyze how immigration status, place or local ecosystem, human capital, social networks, and intra-family dynamics affect the socioeconomic mobility of individuals, born in Mexico, who have resided in the United States for over a decade. In general, they are the heads of family households in the Bronx and Queens, both in immigrant-friendly New York City, and Suffolk County in less welcoming Eastern Long Island. This dissertation seeks to understand socioeconomic and educational outcomes by examining the effects of immigration status, local ecosystems, and intra-family dynamics among Mexican-born heads of 53 family households. Chapter 2 explains key concepts under the current deportation and immigration-enforcement regime, offering also a theoretical model based on the principle of social mobility as one aspect of immigrant integration in U.S. society. Chapter 3 examines the contexts of social mobility among Mexicans in New York using sociodemographic and migration-related variables. Chapter 4 is about outliers, because it focuses on extreme cases of families who have experienced exceptional upward mobility based on the theoretical model I suggest and despite their being long-term unauthorized immigrants. Chapter 5 explains how certain collective practices and common interactions with institutions in local ecosystems offer community support for undocumented Mexicans living in family households. Chapter 6 deals with deferred mobility, a type of precarious immobility for family households with DACA relatives. In conclusion, legal immigration status is not the only factor influencing upward mobility for Mexicans living in New York. Some individuals and their families are able to achieve notable socioeconomic successes, even as undocumented migrants, largely because of their higher human capital, stronger social networks, and positive intra-family dynamics. One central aim of this dissertation was to demonstrate that the Mexican immigrant community, far from being homogeneous, hidden or utterly powerless, is actually diverse, active, and increasing their strength in New York, despite structural barriers and their fairly recent arrival in this part of the country. The social mobility and integration of international migrants from Mexico, including their children and families, is inextricably linked to regularization policies, from granting legal status to enabling access to valuable social goods established by U.S. society.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1. How do papers, places, and families matter for social mobility? …………………………… 1
1.1 Unauthorized, unrecognized, unappreciated ………………………………………………………………. 8
1.2 Analytical framework and hypotheses …………………………………………………………………….. 12
1.3 Immigration status and social mobility across places ………………………………………………… 16
1.4 Data, methods, and approach …………………………………………………………………………………. 20
1.5 Dissertation structure…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 23
Chapter 2. Immigrant social mobility and limited inclusion ……………………………………………….. 28
2.1 Tridimensional model of inclusion-exclusion …………………………………………………………… 30
2.2 From assimilation theory to limited inclusion…………………………………………………………… 38
2.3 Undocumented immigrant vulnerability ………………………………………………………………….. 44
Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 52
Chapter 3. Contexts of mobility for Mexican New Yorkers ………………………………………………… 54
3.1 Mexicans in New York City, 2000-2015 …………………………………………………………………. 56
Nativity, age, and sex ……………………………………………………………………………………………….58
Marital status and household type ………………………………………………………………………………59
3.2 Papeles in the city and state: Legal context ……………………………………………………………… 60
Citizenship status and electorate in the five boroughs …………………………………………………..60
Unauthorized Mexican New Yorkers: Estimates since 1990s …………………………………………61
3.3 Places/destinations: Geographical context ……………………………………………………………….. 65
Over a century of Mexicans in New York, but still new on the block ……………………………..67
NYC and Eastern Long Island as destinations ……………………………………………………………..70
3.4 Urban rearing: Familial context ……………………………………………………………………………… 82
Educational attainment and language ………………………………………………………………………….83
Household income and poverty ………………………………………………………………………………….87
Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 90
Chapter 4. Exceptional upward mobility sin papeles …………………………………………………………. 95

4.1 Moving upwards …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 97
4.2 Familia Arias, Queens: Mobility with a ‘ball & chain’…………………………………………….. 102
4.3 Familia Íñiguez, Suffolk: Mobility under scrutiny ………………………………………………….. 120
Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 134
Chapter 5. Precarious immobility with community support ………………………………………………. 139
5.1 Not up, nor down ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 142
5.2 Appraising vulnerability ………………………………………………………………………………………. 147
Anastacia Barrios: CBOs & GED in the Bronx ………………………………………………………….149
Socorro Cortés: One FBO & 6th grade in Suffolk ……………………………………………………….154
Esteban Salcido: CBOs & “prepa” in Queens …………………………………………………………….159
Eduardo Naranjo: No CBO & 9th grade in Queens …………………………………………………….162
5.3. Urban rancheros & suburban believers …………………………………………………………………. 165
Food truck support in NYC, low vulnerability ……………………………………………………………166
Church support in Suffolk, high vulnerability …………………………………………………………….172
Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 184
Chapter 6. Limbos of learners & laborers: Deferred mobility ……………………………………………. 188
6.1 Socioeconomic limbos ………………………………………………………………………………………… 191
6.2 Bronxican DACA recipients: Limbo of learners……………………………………………………… 195
Familia Olalde: Support before college ……………………………………………………………………..197
DACA parents & CBOs ………………………………………………………………………………………….203
6.3 Mexican DACA recipients in Suffolk: Limbo of laborers ………………………………………… 209
Familia Ramírez: Limited support before enlisting? ……………………………………………………212
Las Reina: Thriving sisters, working mothers …………………………………………………………….217
Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 219
Chapter 7. Conclusion: ‘Papers’ for immigrant families and social mobility across borders …. 222
Appendix ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 234
References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 279

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Additional information

Author

Guillermo Yrizar Barbosa

No of Chapters

7

No of Pages

303

Reference

YES

Format

PDF

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