Mental Health Outcomes of Various Types of Fear Among University Students who have an Undocumented Legal Status During the Donald Trump Presidency

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Abstract

Having an undocumented legal status is a risk factor for mental health conditions such as depression and anxiety among university students. Much of the literature on the experiences of university students who hold an undocumented legal status has primarily focused on better understanding the educational, social, financial, and legal challenges among undergraduate students. The literature has addressed how some of these difficulties impact components of their social and mental health wellness. Yet, there is still a dearth of research focused on further understanding the experiences of students who hold an undocumented legal status from a psychological perspective, and specifically, with respect to the psychological effects of fear. This study focuses on understanding the long-lasting mental health effects of various forms of fear among university students, including undergraduate and graduate students. This parallel convergent mixed-methods study examines mental health outcomes such as anxiety, depression, and trauma related to fear of deportation, fear of detention, fear of microaggressions, fear of hate speech, and fear of crime since the election of Donald Trump among university students who hold an undocumented legal status.

Table of Contents

Signatures…………………………………………………………………………………………1
Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………………..2
Dedication ……………………………………………………………………………………….3
Acknowledgements ………………………………………………………………………………4
Table of Contents …………………………………………………………………………………5
Specific Aims ……………………………………………………………………………………..8
Chapter I: Introduction…………………………………………………………………………..9 Terms ……………………………………………………………………………………10
Chapter II: Literature Review…………………………………………………………………13
Immigration………………………………………………………………………………13 Students who have an undocumented legal status……………………………………….18
Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA)….……………………………………23
Policy Actions in the Trump Administration…………………………………………….25
Consequences of Discrimination…………………………………………………………27
Health Benefits of DACA Receipt…………………………………………………………32
Mental Health and Legal Status……………………………………………………………33 Determinants of Fear……………………………………………………………………..36
Consequences of Fear……………………………………………………………..39
Fear of Deportation………………………………………………………………..40
Significance and Proposed Impact……………………………………………………….41
Chapter III. Research Aims and Hypotheses…………………………………………………44
Quantitative Research Questions………………………………………………………….44

Qualitative Research Questions………………………………………………………….45
Chapter III: Methods…………………………………………………………………………..46
Quantitative Component…………………………………………………………………..46
Qualitative Component…………………………………………………………………….47
Study Sample……………………………………………………………………….49
Inclusion Criteria…………………………………………………………49
Exclusion Criteria………………………………………………………..49 Procedures ……………………………………………………………………………….50
Quantitative Measures……………………………………………………………51
Deportation Worries Measure ……………………………………………51
Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7)………………………………52
Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9)…………………………………52
PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCLC-C)……………………………53
Qualitative Measures………………………………………………………………..….172
Interview Guide…………………………………………………………172 Data Management and Analysis…………………………………………………………55
Quantitative………………………………………………………………………55
Qualitative………………………………………………………………………..57 Chapter IV: Results……………………………….……………….……………………………61
Quantitative Results………………………………………………………………………61
Demographics……………………………………………………………………61
Bivariate Statistics……………………………………………………………….62
Hypothesis 1……………………………………………………………………..62

Hypothesis 2……………………………………………………………………..62
Hypothesis 3……………………………………………………………………..63
Hypothesis 4……………………………………………………………………..64
Qualitative Results……………………………………………………………………….64
Phase I……………………………………………………………………………64
Phase II……………………………………………………………………………65
Phase III………………………………………………………………………….65
Phase IV………………………………………………………………………….65
Main Findings…………………………………………………………………………….66
Research Question One…………………………………………………………..67
Research Question One…………………………………………………………..92
Research Question One………………………………………………………….110
Quantitative and Qualitative Data Synthesis……………………………………………115
Chapter V: Discussion
Overall Summary……………………………….……………….……………….……..119 Current Research……………………………….……………….……………….………119 Implications……………………………….……………….……………….……………123 Practice Implications……………………………….……………….………………..…125 Program Implications……………………………….……………….………………….129 Policy Implications……………………………….……………….……………….……131 Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research……………………………….……..133
Conclusion……………………………….……………….……………….…………….134

VI. References……………………………….……………….……………….……..…………135
VII. Tables……………………………….……………….……………….……..………….…153
Table 1: Demographics……………………………….……………….…………….….153
Table 2: Mean Scores……………………………….……………….…………………..154
Table 3: Sample and Population Comparison ……………………………….…………155
Table 4: Deportation Concerns……………………………….……………….………..156
Table 5: Clinical Cut-Off Scores……………………………….……………….………157
Table 6: Selected illustrative themes and example quotes of general fear and specific types of fear under and because of the Trump administration……………………….…158
Table 7: Selected illustrative themes and example quotes of physical, psychological, emotional, and behavioral responses to chronic fear..……………………….…………160
Table 8: Selected illustrative themes and example quotes of informal, formal, individual, and collective coping and healing strategies. ……………………….………………….161
Table 9: Selected illustrative themes and example quotes of student experiences in education informing recommendations for student support and resources serving students who hold an undocumented legal status. ……………………….………………………162
VII. Figures……………………………….……………….……………….……..……………163
Figure 1: Codes Leading to Main Themes and Findings……………………………….163
Figure 2: Main Themes and Major Findings of Specific Types of Fear Under and Because of Donald Trump, Donald Trump administration, and Overall Political Climate………164
Figure 3: Main Themes and Major Findings of Coping and Healing Practices………..165
Figure 4: Main Themes and Major Findings of Overall Educational Experiences and Recommendations for Support & Resources……………………………………………166

VIII. Appendices ……………………………….……………….……………….……..……..167
Appendix A. Deportation Worries Measure…….……………….……………………..167
Appendix B. Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Measure…….……………….…………168
Appendix C. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Measure…….……………….…………..169
Appendix D: PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCLC-C) …….……………….…….170
Appendix E. Interview Guide…….……………….………….……………….………..172
Appendix F. Letters of Support …….……………….………….……………….……..176
Appendix G. Recruitment Flyers…….……………….………….……………….…….178
Appendix H. Consent and Confidentiality Terms….……………….………….………179
Appendix I. Screener Questions….……………….………….………….…………..…181
Appendix J. Participant Intake Questions.……………….………….………….………182
Appendix K. Resource Sheet……………….………….………….……………………183

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Additional information

Author

Liliana Campos

No of Chapters

9

No of Pages

187

Reference

YES

Format

PDF

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