Load Flow Analysis of 138/69kV Substation Using Electrical Transient & Analysis Program (ETAP)


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Load Flow Analysis of 138/69kV Substation Using Electrical Transient & Analysis Program (ETAP) is a well-researched Engineering Thesis/Dissertation topic, it is to be used as a guide or framework for your Academic Research.


This paper examines the load flow analysis of a high-voltage substation using ETAP and explores options for improving the voltage profile of the system. This study yields critical information about the system, such as the voltage drop at each feeder, the voltage at each bus, as well as real and reactive power losses at the different branches and feeders. In this power flow examination, the system’s performance is evaluated for different operating conditions, so that control measurements can be applied if necessary.

The experimental results are used for proposing a plan of using fixed and switched shunt capacitor banks to improve the voltage stability of the substation. Distribution systems include inductive loads along with transformers and transmission lines, which account for quite significant power loss due to lagging current.

The introduction of strategically sized and positioned shunt capacitors within the distribution system helps to counteract losses due to inductive elements and improves the voltage profile of the network. The problem of capacitor allocation includes the location, type (fixed or switched), and size of the capacitor. To determine the sizing of the shunt capacitor bank necessary to compensate the inductive effect of the loads, power flow equations are used along with the ETAP simulation results.

The results obtained in the load flow analysis will be substituted into these equations to perform a power factor correction. Overall, the purpose of this paper is to use the ETAP software to analyze the load flow operation of the substation, and perform the necessary adjustments so that it meets the National Standards for Electrical Power Systems.


In this paper, a load flow analysis is performed to a 138/69kV substation using ETAP. The substation layout and equipment choice were provided by Black & Veatch (B&V) as part of a Senior Design project. The scope of this report encompasses the load flow results and explains how these were used to implement changes on the feeders that resulted in an improved voltage profile.

In this context, the load flow study is performed for different operating conditions or scenarios to determine what control measurements are necessary to prevent system breakdown. The results of the load flow study for the different scenarios will be substituted into power flow equations destined to improve the power factor of a given bus. The equations define the relationship between the real and reactive power with the desired power factor.

They yield the updated size of fixed or switched shunt capacitor banks required to compensate for the inductive effect of the loads. To verify that the theoretical results are accurate, the load flow is performed with the updated parameters for the capacitor banks. As early introduced, the power flow study for this substation will be performed on eBay.

The acronym ETAP stands for Electrical Transient and Analysis Program. This software is a comprehensive platform for the design, simulation, and protection of electrical networks. Even not only provides solutions to substation designs, but also specializes in the generation, transmission, and distribution of power systems. The software relies on predictive simulation.

This allows the user to perform analysis using real-time system parameters and may also simulate “what if” scenarios to predict equipment malfunctioning. ETAP also uses preventive simulation, which allows the user to see any automated alarms and warnings. These alarms and warnings are based on events that could potentially occur (generator outages/contingencies) and corrective action will be suggested.

ETAP analyses are always verified and validated against field results, real system measurements, and hand calculations. The one-line diagram of the electrical system in question is composed by several pieces of equipment, each with a specific function.

All of the components for this substation are high-voltage components. Some of the most important components are the power source, disconnect switches, circuit breakers, capacitor banks, transmission lines, as well as power transformers, potential transformers, and current transformers.

The layout for the substation and the operation parameters for each component on the one-line were specified in the documentation provided by Black & Veatch, with the exception of the transmission line parameters. The process of choosing the most suitable type of conductors for the transmission lines is discussed in the next section.


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