Intensive Fruit Cultivation Technology of Citrus Fruits: High Density Planting: A Brief Review is a well-researched topic, it is to be used as a guide or framework for your Academic Research.
Sweat orange, grape fruit, lime, lemon and mandarin are the major citrus fruit cultivated in most of the countries. Less land and traditional citrus cultivation practice result low production as well as productivity especially in developing countries. This paper is reviewed with the aim of calling attentions of the concerned sectors by explaining benefits of high
density planting technology over traditional system of planting in citrus fruit. More than forty research technical papers were critically reviewed focus on pruning practices, planting distance, dwarf rootstocks of citrus spp. and possible uses of plant growth regulators (retardants) used in
citrus fruit. Annual pruning in recommend technique, use of dwarf rootstocks viz. trifoliate, troyer citrange, assam lemon etc, appropriate planting distance, use of plant growth regulators (Paclobutrazol and GA3) and nutrient management are the basic components for successful
high density planting(HDP). HDP technology is gaining popularity in citrus because of earlier production and net returns, increasing land values and higher taxes of land, efficient use of nutrient and water due to greater root densities, efficient pesticidal application and easier
Citrus is an evergreen flowering tree and shrub of Rutaceae family which height ranges from 5 to 16 meter, 162 species of citrus are identified till date (Budathoki, 2004). High density planting is the production of fruits with more number of trees in given area than a conventional number of trees (G Tzul, 2016). Palmer (2004) explain high density planting as
it is the new solution or option to overcome economic pressure adapted by dwarfing rootstocks and by better understanding of tree growth and behavior. Goswami et al. (2014) define it is the novel technique to obtain high productivity both in short and long duration crops. Increasing productivity in per unit area is important, with this aim high density
planting was firstly adopted on apple in Europe during the end of the 19th century (Lockard and Schneider, 1978; Sheheilah, 2013). Now, high density planting is adopted both in temperate and tropical fruits in developed countries. Shrestha (2010) mentioned two principles of high density planting as to make the best use of vertical and horizontal space per unit area and to harness maximum possible returns per unit of inputs. High density planting is highly successful in fruit like apple, pear, citrus, banana and pineapple (Lockard and Schneider, 1978).
Successful high density planting should be economically justifiable and also variety and rootstock should be better adopted (Tucker and Murano, 1990). Maximum utilization of space, sunlight, moisture, nutrient and weed control are keys to obtain higher yield per unit area under high density planting (Goswami et al., 1993). Because of lack of experimental
data, recommendation and practices of planting in developing countries mandarin trees are planted in wider spacing (Shrestha, 2010).When citrus fruit price in market is high, sapling price is low, land is expensive and interest rates are low in banking institutions, high density planting gives more economic advantage (Palmer, 2004). The available land resource is limited, therefore to promote fruit industry crop intensification may be better option (Shrestha, 2010). Generally, citrus trees are planted in rectangular and square methods with a dimension of 3 m x 4 m and 4 m x 4 m respectively. Later, dimension increases to 6 m x 8 m and 8 m x 8 m after 15 – 20 years, respectively by thining out of trees (Sheheilah, 2013). The important five components of high density planting are dwarfing rootstocks and inter stocks, training and
pruning, dwarf scion varieties, use of chemicals/ plant growth regulators and suitable crop management practices (Palmer, 2004; Goswami et al., 2014; G Tzul, 2016).Tucker and Wheaton (1978) reported vigor of tree (particular scion / rootstock combination), climate, soil fertility and drainage, water availability, use of chemicals and suitable crop management practices and market outlet as six important components of high density planting. The equipment used in high density planting technology for production and harvesting operation should be redesigned (reduced in size) as compared to the equipment used in normal density planting (Tucker and Murano, 1990). Improve in fruit quality, reduction of production cost, improve in precocity and reduction of spray drift are the reasons for adopting high density planting technology (Palmer, 2004).