Influence of Institutional Factors and Attitude on the Use of Herbicides by Farmers

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Influence of Institutional Factors and Attitude on the Use of Herbicides by Farmers is a well-researched topic, it can be used as a guide or framework for your Academic Research

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to determine the influence of institutional factors and attitude on the use ofherbicides by farmers in Edo State, Nigeria. The study was descriptive and experimental. Multistage
sampling technique was used. Thus the total sample size for the study was one hundred and twenty (120) respondents. Data was analyzed and presented using percentage, mean statistic and standard deviation respectively. Hypothesis for the study was analyzed using multinomial logistic regression with a p≤0.05 level of significance. Majority (90.8%) of the respondents were members of different social organizations with thrift (isusu) society ranking highest (50.8%). Farmers in the study
were concerned about the harmful effects of herbicides on the environment ( = 3.70) as such were
of the view that alternative weed pest control should be considered ( = 3.78). Extension contact, access to credit and membership of social organization have significant influence on herbicide use. Based on the findings and conclusion, it is recommended among others, that policy makers, extension agents, NGOs and related organizations should consider the use of social organizations in group education of farmers.

INTRODUCTION

New production technologies designed to
revamp the agricultural sector and boost
agricultural production have led to marked
increase in crop yields. Problems of food
production and distribution have been elaborately
analyzed with a variety of policy
recommendations, among which is the use of
agrochemicals not only to increase food
production but to reduce food waste and
hopefully, enhance farmers’ income. The
conventional methods of raising farm productivity
since World War II have centered on
employing the use of externally acquired inputs
like fertilizers and protection chemicals among
others [1].
Agrochemical (or agrichemical), a contraction of
agricultural chemical is a generic term for the
various chemical products used in agriculture.
Agrochemicals are important agricultural inputs
to protect crops from diseases, pests, and weeds.
The uses of agrochemicals contribute not only to
healthy growth of crops and animals but also to
improve farm work efficiency and stable supply of
good agricultural produce. Although many
kinds of chemicals are used in agriculture, they
can be categorized into simple groups according
to the functions, they perform. These
include insecticides, herbicides, fungicides,
molluscicides, and rodenticides, etc. [2,3].
According to [4] herbicides, also commonly
known as weedkillers, are pesticides used to kill
unwanted plants. In a similar way to tractors,
plows and other implements, herbicides have
now become an integral part of the complex word
of technical inputs required for modern
agricultural production [5,3]. For several years
humans have utilized herbicides to protect their
crops [6,7] from damages caused by weeds
leading to an increase in land area under
cultivation by farmers, saving the high cost of manual
weed control thus reducing the farming workload. In
Nigeria herbicides have since been effectively
used to control weeds in agricultural systems
[8,9].
The [10] has estimated pre-harvest crop losses
due to weed infestation, plant diseases and
arthropods (largely insects and termites) to be
around 30 to 35%, and post-harvest losses (grain
storage, etc.) at an additional 10 – 20%. Thus,
chemical weed control has become an
increasingly necessary operation in the
consistent and economic production of crops
[3,11,12].
With benefits of herbicide control ranking high,
negative effects on the environment and human
health generated mainly by lack of knowledge
and negative attitude regarding safety
parameters on the part of users have made
herbicide use in agriculture one of today’s most
controversial issues [7]. During the past four
decades, a large number of herbicides have
been introduced as pre and post-emergent weed
killers in many countries of the world. In Nigeria,
herbicides have since effectively been used to
control weeds in agricultural systems [8,9]. As
farmers continue to realize the usefulness of
herbicides, larger quantities are applied to the
soil. But the fate of these compounds in the soils
is becoming increasingly important since they
could be leached; in which case groundwater is
contaminated or immobile, and persists on the
top soil [13]. These herbicides could then
accumulate to toxic levels in the soil and become
harmful to micro-organisms, plant, wildlife and
man [14]. There is an increasing concern that
herbicides not only affect the target organisms
(weeds) but also the microbial communities
present in soils, and these non-target effects may
reduce the performance of important soil
functions. These critical soil functions include
organic matter degradation, the nitrogen cycle
and methane oxidation [15].

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YourPastQuestions Brand

Additional information

Type

Project Topic and Material

Category

Agricultural Extension

No of Chapters

5

Reference:

Yes

Format

PDF

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