Inequality, Patronage, Ethnic Politics and Decentralization in Kenya and Botswana: An Analysis of Factors that Increase the Likelihood of Ethnic Conflict

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Inequality, Patronage, Ethnic Politics and Decentralization in Kenya and Botswana: An Analysis of Factors that Increase the Likelihood of Ethnic Conflict, Is A Well-Researched Topic, It Is To Be Used As A Guide Or Framework For Your Research.

ABSTRACT

Scholars have recommended numerous institutional arrangements for mitigating ethnic conflict in divided societies. Electoral systems are often considered to have an impact on ethnic conflict, and scholars have recommended both proportional representation systems and majoritarian systems for their respective effects on mitigating ethnic tensions. However, in a cross-national analysis of 18 sub-Saharan democracies, I find no impact of electoral systems on ethnic conflict. Countries employing proportional representation systems and majoritarian systems are compared according to three measures of ethnic conflict, yet neither electoral system correlates with higher or lower levels of conflict. In the interest of identifying factors that do impact ethnic conflict, I compare Kenya and Botswana, two sub-Saharan democracies with similar levels of ethnic diversity and vastly differing levels of ethnic conflict. I limit this analysis to factors that are subject to intervention, as these prove most promising in the search for methods by which to mitigate ethnic conflict. I examine inequality, ethnic patronage networks, ethnic politics and decentralization in Kenya and Botswana. My analysis reveals that inequality, ethnic patronage networks, and ethnic politics increase the likelihood of ethnic conflict, while the effects of decentralization on ethnic conflict are inconclusive.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..ii
LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………v
CHAPTER ONE: THE EFFECTS OF ELECTORAL SYSTEMS ON ETHNIC CONFLICT IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA … 1
LITERATURE REVIEW ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2
AFRICAN LITERATURE REVIEW ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
CONSTRUCTED ETHNICITY ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
ETHNIC CONFLICT ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12
CASE SELECTION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12
CHAPTER TWO: THE HISTORY OF ETHNIC CONFLICT IN KENYA AND BOTSWANA ………………………………. 16
SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION AND ETHNIC COMPOSITION ……………………………………………………… 16
Kenya………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16
Botswana ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18
SECTION 2: HISTORY AND COLONIAL LEGACY …………………………………………………………………….. 20
History of Ethnic Relations and Colonial Legacy in Kenya ………………………………………………………… 21
History of Ethnic Relations and Colonial Legacy in Botswana …………………………………………………… 26
CONCLUSION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29
CHAPTER THREE: INEQUALITY AND ETHNIC PATRONAGE NETWORKS ……………………………………………… 30
SECTION 1: LITERATURE REVIEW ……………………………………………………………………………………… 30
SECTION 2: INEQUALITY AND ETHNIC PATRONAGE NETWORKS IN KENYA ………………………………… 34
Ethnic Patronage in Kenya Today …………………………………………………………………………………………. 38
SECTION 3: INEQUALITY AND ETHNIC PATRONAGE IN BOTSWANA …………………………………………. 39
Patronage Networks …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 41
SECTION FIVE: CONCLUSION …………………………………………………………………………………………… 43
CHAPTER FOUR: ETHNIC POLITICS ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 48
SECTION ONE: LITERATURE REVIEW …………………………………………………………………………………. 48
SECTION TWO: ETHNIC POLITICS IN KENYA ………………………………………………………………………… 50
How Ethnic Politics have led to Violence in Kenya ………………………………………………………………….. 52
SECTION THREE: ETHNIC POLITICS IN BOTSWANA ……………………………………………………………….. 55
SECTION FOUR: CONCLUSION …………………………………………………………………………………………. 61
CHAPTER FIVE: DECENTRALIZATION AND ETHNIC CONFLICT …………………………………………………………… 65
SECTION 1: LITERATURE REVIEW ……………………………………………………………………………………… 65

SECTION 2: DECENTRALIZATION IN KENYA…………………………………………………………………………. 68
SECTION 3: CENTRALIZATION IN BOTSWANA ……………………………………………………………………… 75
Decentralization in Botswana ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 76
SECTION 4: CONCLUSION ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 78
CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 82
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY OF ETHNIC CONFLICT …………………………………………………………. 85
OTHER POSSIBLE EXPLANATIONS …………………………………………………………………………………….. 87
FUTURE RESEARCH ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 89
CONCLUSION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90
REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 92

Additional information

Author

Rei Gordon

No of Chapters

6

No of Pages

106

Reference

YES

Format

PDF

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