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FARMERS’ KNOWLEDGE LEVEL OF PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES AND ASSOCIATED HEALTH PROBLEMS is a well-researched topic, it is to be used as a guide or framework for your Academic Research.


Comparative analysis of the precautionary measures and operational habits with the associated health problems among 240 farmers in cacao growing communities of Osun and Edo States, Nigeria was carried out. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. The results showed high-risk exposure of cocoa farmers to toxicity and hazards of agrochemicals used on their cocoa farms. The mean knowledge score of precautionary measures in both states was low. More than 50% of the cocoa farmers in the two states were in the habit of eating, drinking, and smoking during spraying. About 65% of cocoa farmers in Osun had no extension contact and training on the safe handling of chemicals compared to 97.0% of the farmers in Edo state. The majority (60%) of the farmers in the two states claimed that they have health problems with the following symptoms: body itching, cough, and difficulty in breathing, which often occurred during and after chemical usage. It is concluded that cocoa farmers in Osun and Edo States in Nigeria were vulnerable to health hazards associated with the use of chemicals due inadequate knowledge of the precautionary measures and exhibition of culpable operational habits that can be controlled through effective extension education program.


Cocoa tree (Theobroma Cacao) belong to the Genus theobroma and family Sterculiaceae. It is the first major economic tree crop in Southwestern Nigeria since 1957. However, Farinde and Ogunjimi
(2006) asserted that the major setback to increased cocoa production since about 35 years ago has been the incidence of diseases and pests, apart from rural-urban migration of able-bodied people, neglect of
agriculture and natural hazard such as fire outbreak on cocoa plantations. This position confirmed the documentation of Adegbola (1979) that annual losses of the world production due to diseases and pest (especially black and brown pod diseases) were 10 percent and as high as 90 percent in Cameroon and Nigeria. Other diseases of cocoa include cocoa swollen shoot virus (CSSV), cocoa mottle leaf virus and cocoa yellow mosaic virus. The diseases are cause by insect pests (causative agents) such as Thrips: Selenothrips rubrocinetus Sel; Mealybug: Plannoecoccus citri Risso; Psyllid: Messohomotaina tessnni
Aulm; Black Cocoa Mirids: Distantiella theobroma Dist; and Brown Cocoa Mirids: Sahlbergella Singularis Haglund.

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Agricultural Economics

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