EFFICACY OF Beauveria bassiana AND Verticillium lecanii FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF WHITEFLY AND Aphid is a well-researched topic, it is to be used as a guide or framework for your Academic Research
In the present study two entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Verticillium lecanii, were tested for their efficacy against whitefly and aphid. The mortality caused by B. bassiana was higher as compared to V. lecanii. The mortalities caused by filtrates were significantly higher than those by conidia of both the fungi. In case of whitefly, the mortality caused by B. bassiana was significantly higher than that of V. lecanii. Similarly, the mortality with filtrates was significantly greater than
that with conidia of both the fungi. On the other hand, in case of aphid, the mortality caused by V. lecanii was slightly higher than that by B. bassiana. Similar is the case with formulations. The mortality caused by conidia was greater than by filtrates of both the fungi but the difference was non-significant. As regards treatments, the maximum mortality of whitefly was obtained with treatment B. bassiana Bb01 followed by V. lecanii Vl01 and B. bassiana Bb02 when applied as filtrates. The
treatment V. lecanii V3 caused the minimum mortality followed by V. lecanii V2. The filtrate formulations caused higher mortalities as compared to conidial application. On the contrary, the treatments in case of aphid mortality were at par with each other with few exceptions. Maximum aphid mortality was observed with treatment V. lecanii V2 followed by B. bassiana Bb02. The remaining treatments almost gave the similar mortalities. Time intervals also affected mortality. The mortality was significantly greater after exposure to 6 days as compared to 3 days.
A large number of biotic factors are responsible for incurring
yield losses in crops, fruits and vegetables around the globe
and in Pakistan. These include insect pests of different kinds
which affect the crops qualitatively and quantitatively (Javed
et al., 2017a,b; Aslam et al., 2019a). Among phytopathogens,
viruses, fungi (Fateh et al., 2017), nematodes (Hussain et al.,
2016; Kayani et al., 2017; Tariq-Khan et al., 2017; Mukhtar
et al., 2017a,b), and bacteria (Aslam et al., 2017a,b, 2019b)
also cause severe growth retardations.
Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.) belonging to the order
Hemiptera and family Aleyrodidae is considered as a serious
threat to agricultural crops. It is a wide spread pest worldwide
and known to transmit many viruses in field crops. There are
many biotypes of whitefly reported as economic pests
throughout the world. A well-known biotype B of B. tabaci is
a major pest of many crops and vegetables causing losses
worth 714 million dollars per year (Oliveira et al., 2013).
Aphid is also a devastating pest of a wide range of crops
grown in greenhouses like pepper, tomato and cucumber.
Sitobion avenae, Rophalosiphum padi, Schizaphis graminum,
Metopolophium dirhodum are reported species of aphid
causing serious damage to field crops (Dana et al., 2006).
Aphid and whitefly rapidly increase their populations and are
mostly found in overlapping generations. Insecticides are
used as primary tactic to control these pests in greenhouses
and field crops (Castle et al., 2014) but the increasing use of
insecticides at higher doses has resulted in resistance,
resurgence and high input costs. The environmental and legal
restrictions due to the use of higher doses of insecticides have
urged the search for alternative control methods including
biological control in general and use of entomopathogens in
specific (Mukhtar, 2018).
Entomopathogenic fungi have the exclusive ability to be used
as biological control agents as they can infect their host
directly through the integument. These fungi are widely
spread in the world and adapted to terrestrial agro-ecosystems
where insects or other arthropods are available. Many
important insect pests belonging to insect orders Coleoptera,
Lepidoptera, Isoptera and Hemiptera have been reported to be
susceptible to many isolates of entomopathogenic fungi and
nematodes (Boopathi et al., 2015). Natural mortality in
whitefly population has been reported due to
entomopathogenic fungi mostly by Aschersonia spp.,
Beauveria bassiana, Lecanicillium spp. and Isaria
fumosorosea (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) (Wraight et al.,