Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of a Model Waste Stabilization Pond


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Design, Construction, and Performance Evaluation of a Model Waste Stabilization Pond is a well-researched topic, it is to be used as a guide or framework for your Academic Research


The study aimed at the design, construction, and performance evaluation of a model Waste Stabilization Pond (WSP). The WSP comprised of one facultative pond and three maturation ponds all in series. The influent of the WSP after filtration through the lined sandy loam media (obtained from the premises of Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria) had the BOD reduced to 22 mg/L from 356 mg/L indicating a 93.8% removal level. A fecal coliform count (fc) of the influent sample gave 1×108 fc/100 mL, whereas the effluent gave 10 fc/100 mL which was 99.9% FC removal. The value of 150 mg/L of the Total Suspended Solids (TSS) for the influent was reduced to 26 mg/L for the effluent after treatment. It was concluded that the effluent from the WSP was within the limits of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) standard of 30 mg/L for TSS, 30 mg/L for BOD5, and 400 fc/100 mL for faecal coliform thus making the wastewater safe for discharge into surface water as well as its use for irrigation after treatment. The sandy loam soil media was found to be non-promising earlier in the removal process until it was lined with polyethylene material. A clay media was therefore recommended.


As urban and industrial development increases, the
quantity of waste/water generated also increases. These
wastes pose a serious threat to public health when they
are not treated and not readily disposed of.
Waste Stabilization Ponds (WSP) often referred to
as oxidation ponds or lagoons is a method of
wastewater treatment, suitable for use in hot climates. It
consists of a series of shallow lakes (ponds namely
anaerobic, facultative and maturation) through which
wastewater flows. Treatment occurs through natural,
physical, chemical, and biological processes and no
energy or machinery is required except sunlight
energy. According to Arthur (1983), stabilization ponds
are the preferred wastewater treatment process in
developing countries where land is often available at
reasonable cost and skilled labor is in short supply.
Usually, anaerobic and facultative ponds are
designed for BOD removal and maturation ponds for
pathogen removal although some BOD removal occurs
in maturation ponds and some pathogen removal in
anaerobic and facultative ponds (Mara et al., 1998).
The most appropriate wastewater treatment is that
which will produce an effluent meeting the
recommended microbiological and chemical quality
guidelines both at low cost and with minimum
operational and maintenance requirements (Arar, 1988).
A World Bank report (Shuval et al., 1986)
endorsed the concept of stabilization as the most
suitable wastewater treatment system for effluent use in

The choice of a site to construct a pond system
requires an area where the water table is deep and the
soil is heavy and impermeable. Silt or clay soils are
ideal for pond foundations and construction. Building
ponds over coarse sands, gravels, fractured rock or
other materials, that will allow effluent to seep out of
the pond or allow groundwater to enter in, should be
avoided (Agunwamba, 2000).

Generally, ponds should be located at least 200 m
(preferably 500 m) downwind from the community they
serve and away from any likely area of future
expansion (Mara et al., 1998).
Therefore, the objectives of the study are to design
and construct a model waste stabilization Pond and to
evaluate its performance.


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Agricultural Engineering

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