Bio-Security Measures Employed by Poultry Farmers in Enugu State Nigeria is a well-researched topic, it can be used as a guide or framework for your Academic Research
This study ascertained biosecurity measures used by poultry farmers in
Enugu State, Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used to select
120 poultry farmers. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression
analysis were used to analyze data and present results for the study.
The mean age of respondents was 47 years while farming experience
was 9.6 years. Almost all (97.5%) of the respondents had one form of
formal education. The majority of the farmers sourced biosecurity
information from co-poultry farmers (87.7%) and veterinary officers
(81.4%). Major bio-security measures used by farmers include:
inspection of flock daily to pick mortalities ( =3.7), isolation and
quarantine of sick birds ( =3.7), vaccination of birds ( =3.6), as well as
adequate cleaning of feeding and drinking troughs ( =3.6). The
standardized coefficients for age (0.327), farming experience (0.278)
and farm income (0.409) had a positive influence (*P≤0.05) on the use of
biosecurity measures. The use of a battery cage system (p=0.013) and use of deep litter combined with battery cage systems (p=0.001) had a
negative influence on the use of biosecurity practices. Extension
workers should educate farmers on the importance and use of
biosecurity measures for optimum production.
In Nigeria, small scale poultry represents 85% of the estimated 82 million adult chickens, accounting for approximately 94 percent of total poultry keeping and nearly 4 percent of the total estimated value of the livestock resources in the country (Gueye, 2000). Poultry production is the most efficient and cost-effective way of increasing the availability of high-protein food, as eggs are known to provide the most perfectly balanced food containing all the essential amino acids, minerals, and vitamins (Branckeart et al., 2000). Production of poultry birds and eggs occupies a
prime position for improving animal protein consumption of both rural and urban households in Nigeria. In view of this, programs and projects have been established by different tiers of government to enhance farmers’ agricultural production. In spite of this, food security, improved livelihood, and attainment of self- sufficiency in food production has remained a delusion in Nigeria. According to FAO
reports, Nigeria has low animal protein intake with an average of 6g per head per day while the world average is 34g per head per day (FAO, 2010). The report further asserted that animal protein constitutes only 3% of an average Nigerian meal, as against 12% recommended for healthy living. Diseases remain one of the major threats to boosting poultry production in Nigeria (Adewole, 2012). The major diseases are the Newcastle disease, avian influenza, avian pox, infectious bursal disease, colisepticeamia, coccidiosis, and worm infestation (Usman and Diarra, 2008) with Newcastle disease being the most recognized by poultry farmers (Adene and Oguntade, 2006). The disease reduces the
productivity of a sick animal and causes a decline in output, increases cost of production and reduction in profit (Farooq et al., 2000). Mohamadou et al. (2010) estimated an annual economic-financial burden of livestock diseases to the tune of N29.2 billion in Nigeria. Also, economic losses experienced by poultry farmers for the years 2009-2011 amounted to over three billion Naira due to infectious bursal disease outbreak alone (Musa et al., 2012). The use of vaccines, good hygiene, increasing standards of cleanliness and regular monitoring of flock health programs have enormous contributions to the establishment of the flock with a low disease incidence. This type of program in any livestock farming is known as biosecurity.