Assessment of bacteria pollution of shallow well water in Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria


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Assessment of bacteria pollution of shallow well water in Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria is a well-researched topic, it can be used as a guide or framework for your Academic Research.


The significance of good quality water to health has long been realized hence the development of water resources is a significant part of integrated community development policy. In this paper, the analysis of the bacteriological quality of shallow well water was undertaken. This is because the shallow well is fast gaining prominence as an alternative source of potable water supply in Abeokuta. To this end, the city of Abeokuta was divided into four zones namely indigenous areas (I), Peri-urban areas (P), modern low-density areas (MLD) and modern high-density areas (MHD) and a total of 40 shallow wells over the entire study area were investigated. The pH, temperature, and electrical conductivity were taken on the field to avoid interference by the change of environment while the bacteriological analysis was carried out within 24 hours of sampling. The result of the bacteria count shows a minimum value of 20 col/100 ml at MHD-1 and a maximum value of 800 col/100 ml at I-8. Fifteen (15) of the wells also show the presence of multiple bacteria. From the study, it was found that shallow well water in Abeokuta is highly contaminated with fecal bacteria and requires disinfection before use since all the wells test positive to the presence of fecal bacteria. [Life Science Journal. 2008; 5(1): 68 – 72] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135). Keywords: bacteria pollution; shallow well; groundwater; modern low density; modern high density; indigenous; peri-urban; Geographic Information System; Abeokuta; Nigeria

1 Introduction

The importance of potable water supply in poverty alle-
viation and socio-economic development cannot be over-
emphasized. In fact, it has attracted increasing attention
over the last decade and will still enjoy greater attention
over the next decade. This is because access to water and
adequate sanitation is a core objective of the Millennium
Development Goals of reducing poverty by the year 2015.
In Abeokuta metropolis, with a population of 605,461
(projected from 1991, Census at a growth rate of 3.5 per-
cent) and daily water demand of 120 million liters per
day (MLD), the water supply from the Ogun State Wa-
ter Corporation is inadequate in terms of quantity hence
the need for an alternative source of water supply. The new
Abeokuta water scheme at Arakanga has a design capac-
ity of 163 MLD but at present, it produces 80 MLD lea-
ving a shortfall of 40 MLD in the water demand of the
city. In order to meet the daily water demand in Abeo-
kuta, groundwater is being considered a better alternative
to supply from public fountains. This is because ground-
water is characterized by certain features that make it at-
tractive as a source of potable water supply. Firstly, with
adequate aquifer protection, groundwater has excellent
microbial and chemical quality and it therefore requires
minimal or no treatment[1]. Secondly, the capital cost of
groundwater development when compared to surface wa-
ter development is modest and groundwater lends itself to
flexible development[2].
The groundwater in Abeokuta is recharged by rainfall,
percolation through thin layered soft rock, by percola-
tion of surface water in relatively highly weathered and
fractured rock and possibly by seepage from streams and
rivers around the city. The groundwater is tapped at shal-
low depths for domestic use through hand-dug wells. The
wells terminate in dry season.

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Project Topic and Material


Agric Metereology and Water Management

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