An Exploration into the Controls and Extent of Capillary Rise in Fine-Grained Sand

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An Exploration into the Controls and Extent of Capillary Rise in
Fine-Grained Sand, Is A Well-Researched Topic, It Is To Be Used As A Guide Or Framework For Your Research.

ABSTRACT

Capillary rise in fine-grained sands is especially important due to the wide distribution of fine-grained sediment throughout the unconsolidated sedimentary layers blanketing the earth. The height to which water rises above the water table in porous media is known as the capillary fringe. Tension pulling on the water molecules from the solid surfaces of pores will cause water to rise in the unconsolidated fine-grained sands until the water reaches equilibrium with the downward force of gravity.

Researching the controls behind capillary rise and being able to predict the extent to which water will rise in fine-grained sand helped provide insight into many applied situations affecting industry, infrastructure, agriculture, and environmental remediation. A review of the literature as well as a series of laboratory experiments helped answer questions surrounding the controls on the extent of capillary rise in fine-grained sands.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. ii
LIST OF TABLES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. v
LIST OF FIGURES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. vii
CHAPTER
1. INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
Literature Review and Background Information ……………………………………………………. 1
Significance of Capillary Rise …………………………………………………………………………….. 1
Determining Capillary Rise ………………………………………………………………………………… 3
Grain Size and Capillary Fringe ………………………………………………………………………….. 5
Mathematical Prediction of Capillary Rise ……………………………………………………………. 5
Defining Fine-Grained Sand ……………………………………………………………………………….. 9
Predicting Capillary Rise and Pore Radius With Laboratory Experiments ………………. 13
Measuring Capillary Rise in the Field ………………………………………………………………… 14
Summary ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 15
2. LABORATORY RESEARCH …………………………………………………………………………………. 16
Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16
Materials ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16
Experimental Methods ……………………………………………………………………………………… 20
Methods for Processing Fine-Grained Sands ……………………………………………………….. 23
Determining Contact Angle ………………………………………………………………………………. 24
Effect of Grain Size on Capillary Rise ……………………………………………………………….. 25

Timing of Capillary Rise ………………………………………………………………………………….. 26
Kerosene vs. Water ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 26
Summary of Research ………………………………………………………………………………………. 26
3. RESULTS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 27
Results of Surface Tension Tests ……………………………………………………………………….. 27
Results of Capillary Rise Experiments ……………………………………………………………….. 30
4. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS ……………………………………………………………………… 33
Comparing Experimental Data With Predictive Models ……………………………………….. 33
Comparing Kerosene Vs. Water Capillary Rises ………………………………………………….. 37
Predicting Capillary Rise Using Experimental Data …………………………………………….. 40
Factors Affecting Values From Experiments and Mathematical Models ………………… 41
REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 46
APPENDICES
A. Glass Cylinder With Funnel and Tubes to Ensure Proper Sediment Packing ………………….. 48
B. Covia Sand Information ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 51
C. Nugent Sand Information ………………………………………………………………………………………… 54
D. Tensiometer Machine and Wilhelmy Plate ………………………………………………………………… 57
E. Manual for Kyowa CBVP-Z Model Tensiometer ……………………………………………………….. 59
F. Sieving Machine and Covia and Nugent Sands ………………………………………………………….. 72
G. Solvent Used for Wilhelmy Plate ……………………………………………………………………………… 75
H. Tables of Raw Data ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 77

Additional information

Author

Neal S. Turluck

No of Chapters

4

No of Pages

90

Reference

YES

Format

PDF

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