A CASE FOR THE PROSTATIC SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (PSA) AS DIAGNOSTIC TOOL FOR PROSTATIC DISORDERS

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A CASE FOR THE PROSTATIC SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (PSA) AS DIAGNOSTIC TOOL FOR PROSTATIC DISORDERS, Is A Well-Researched Topic, It Is To Be Used As A Guide Or Framework For Your Research. (download in EPUB or PDF format).

ABSTRACT

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), also known as gammaseminoprotein
or kallikrein-3 (KLK3), is a glycoprotein enzyme encoded in humans by the KLK3 gene. PSA is a member of the kallikrein-related peptidase family and is secreted by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland.

PSA is produced for the ejaculate, where it liquefies semen in the seminal coagulum and allows sperm to swim freely. It is also believed to be instrumental in dissolving cervical mucus, allowing the entry of sperm into the uterus. PSA is present in small quantities in the serum of men with healthy prostates but is often elevated in the presence of prostate cancer or other prostate disorders.

PSA is not a unique indicator of prostate cancer, but may also detect prostatitis or benign prostatic hyperplasia. Only 30 percent of patients with high PSA have prostate cancer diagnosed after biopsy.

PSA is normally present in the blood at very low levels. Increased levels of PSA may suggest the presence of prostate cancer. However, prostate cancer can also be present in the complete absence of an elevated PSA level, in which case the test result would be a false negative.

PSA levels can be also increased by prostatitis, irritation, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and recent ejaculation, producing a false-positive result. The normal reference ranges for prostate-specific antigen increase with age, as do the usual ranges in cancer.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page – – – – – – – – – i
Table of Content – – – – – – – ii
Abstract – – – – – – – – – iii
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION- – – – – – 1
1.1 Description of the prostate – – – 2
1.1.1 Structure of the prostate – – – – – 4
1.2 Development of the prostate – – – – 8
1.3 Functions of the prostate – – – – – 9
1.4 Regulation of the prostate – – – – 11

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 PROSTATITIS – – – – – – – 12
2.1. Types of Prostatitis – – – – – – 12
2.2 Benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH) – – – 14
2.3 Prostate Cancer – – – – – – 16

Pathophysiology – – – – – – 18
2.3.2 Symptoms of prostate cancer – – – – 20
2.3.3 Risk factors – – – – – – – 20

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 APPLICATIONS OF PROSTATE SPECIFIC
ANTIGEN (PSA) AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL – – 23
3.1 Medical Application – – – – – 24
3.2 Histology of PSA – – – – – – – 24
3.3 Mechanism of action of PSA – – – – 26
3.4 Biochemistry of PSA – – – – – – 27
3.5 Serum levels of PSA – – – – – – 28
3.6 Free PSA – – – – – – – – 29
3.7 Limitation of PSA as diagnostic tool – – – 30
CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 ASSAY METHOD FOR SPECIFIC PROSTATE
ANTIGEN (PSA) – – – – – – – 31
4.1 Summary and Explanation of the Test Procedure – 31
4.3 Assay Procedure – – – – – – 33
4.4 Limitations of Test – – – – – – 34

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION – – 36
5.1 Conclusion – – – – – – – 36
5.2 Recommendation – – – – – – 38
References- – – – – – – 39

Additional information

Author

NWOSU CHINWENDU.D.

No of Chapters

5

No of Pages

42

Reference

YES

Format

PDF

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